is the Director of the International Intelligence Unit and a PhD. Professor at the Graduate School of Economics – EPGE/FGV, Rio de Janeiro. Former President of the Steering Committee of programme PEP (Poverty and Economic Policy), based in Canada; President of the Brazilian chapter of the European Community Studies Association; Member of the Advisory Board of the Chaire Mercosur, at Sciences Po, Paris, and Member of the Board of CEBRI – Brazilian Centre for International Relations. Former Member of the Permanent Group of Experts of the Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, WTO, Geneva, where he also acted as negotiator for the Fourth Protocol of the Agreement on Telecommunications, after the Uruguay Round. He held important positions in the Brazilian government, at the federal (Ministry of Planning) and state (Rio de Janeiro) levels. He has worked with international organisations (the IDB, the World Bank, the OECD Development Centre) and foreign affairs’ ministries.